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Muhammad and the Killing of Girls and Kids


It’s generally claimed that Muhammad had issued a normal prohibition in opposition to the killing of girls and kids, and that this was established Islamic Doctrine. There are two widespread hadiths which can be typically used to help this declare:

It has been reported from Sulaiman b. Buraid by means of his father that when the Messenger of Allah (could peace be upon him) appointed anybody as chief of a military or detachment he would particularly exhort him to concern Allah and to be good to the Muslims who had been with him. He would say: Struggle within the identify of Allah and in the best way of Allah. Struggle in opposition to those that disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy struggle… don’t kill the kids.[1]

And

Ibn ‘Umar narrated {that a} girl was discovered killed in one of many expeditions of the Messenger of Allah, so the Messenger of Allah rebuked that, and he prohibited killing ladies and kids.[2]

So in accordance with the primary hadith, every time Muhammad appointed anybody to guide a Muslim military or detachment, he would challenge an order that kids had been to not be killed. And the second hadith states that Muhammad prohibited the overall killing of girls and kids.

Nevertheless, Muhammad by no means issued such a sweeping prohibition.

For instance, when it got here to ladies criticizing him, Muhammad had no downside with such ladies being killed:

  1. “Ibn ‘Abbas advised us {that a} blind man had a feminine slave…who reviled the Prophet and disparaged him, and he advised her not to do this, however she didn’t cease…One evening she began to disparage and revile the Prophet, so he took a dagger and put it in her abdomen and pressed on it and killed her…The following morning point out of that was made to the Prophet and he assembled the folks and mentioned: ‘By Allah, I adjure the person who did this, to face up.’ The blind man stood up…and he got here and sat earlier than the Prophet. He mentioned: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I’m the one who did it. She used to revile you and disparage you, and I advised her to not do it, however she didn’t cease…Final evening she began to revile you and disparage you, and I took a dagger and positioned it on her abdomen and I pressed on it till I killed her.’ The Prophet mentioned: ‘Bear witness that no retaliation is due for her blood.’”[3]
  2. It was narrated from ‘Ali {that a} Jewish girl used to revile and disparage the Prophet. A person strangled her till she died, and the Messenger of Allah declared that no recompense was payable for her blood.[4]

And when the actions of Muhammad are examined chronologically, one finds that as an alternative of it being a normal, all-encompassing prohibition issued by Muhammad, and subsequently a longtime a part of Islamic doctrine, the prohibition in opposition to the killing of girls and kids was a selected, situational prohibition based mostly on Muhammad’s judgment on the time. At different occasions he really advocated for or allowed the killing of girls and kids.

624 AD

In March Muhammad issued his first order to kill a girl. She was ‘Asma’ Bint Marwan, a poetess who used her poetry to insult Muhammad and to vilify Islam. Muhammad mentioned, “Who will rid me of Marwan’s daughter?”[5] A Muslim identify ‘Umayr went in the course of the evening and killed ‘Asma’ along with his sword whereas she was asleep and her kids had been mendacity asleep round her. When he was advised about this, Muhammad mentioned, “You have got helped God and His apostle, O ‘Umayr!”[6]

625 AD

In March a Meccan military attacked Medina (the Battle of Uhud). Most of the Meccans introduced their wives alongside to encourage them of their battle with the Muslims. There was no file that Muhammad ordered his Muslim warriors to not kill any of those ladies.

This lack of such an order was mirrored in the truth that on the day of the battle, Abu Dujana, one of many Muslim warriors, was given Muhammad’s sword to make use of within the battle. Abu Dujana later acknowledged that in the course of the battle,

I noticed a girl at the moment inciting the folks in a dreadful method. I raised the sword above her for I didn’t take into account her to be aside from a person. He mentioned: I hated that I struck a girl with the sword of the Messenger of God.[7]

Nevertheless, there was additionally a report that the girl was not killed; on this report Abu Dujana defined why he had not killed the girl:

I revered the apostle’s sword an excessive amount of to apply it to a girl.[8]

So on the Battle of Uhud, a Muslim warrior both killed a girl with Muhammad’s sword, or didn’t kill her, however not as a result of it was prohibited however quite solely as a result of he had an excessive amount of respect for Muhammad’s sword to apply it to a girl. There have been no recorded feedback from Muhammad about this incident both approach.

In October Muhammad led a Muslim power into Najd (the Ghazwah of Dhat Al-Riqa). Though there was no preventing reported, a spouse of a non-Muslim was by some means killed by one of many Muslims.[9] There have been no recorded feedback about this from Muhammad.

627 AD

In March Muhammad besieged the Jewish Banu Qurayza tribe. The Jews surrendered, and one Jewish girl was beheaded for reportedly having both killed a Muslim by dropping a millstone on him,[10] or just because she had “verbally abused and insulted” Muhammad.[11]

Had been any of the opposite ladies of the Banu Qurayza tribe killed? The reply is “No,” but it surely was not as a result of Muhammad had prohibited it. Right here is an attention-grabbing clarification for why the remainder of the ladies of the Bani Qurayzah, and even the kids, had been spared:

…the explanation why the kids and girls of Banu Quraythah had been spared, was as a result of there was a profit [Maslahah] in preserving them alive – that means enslavement. And killing them would have meant destroying priceless property. However as Az-Zayla’i (ra) clarifies – that if there may be certainly a profit in killing the ladies and kids of the kuffar – a profit which must be higher than the advantage of enslaving them – then it’s permissible to kill them.[12]

And the ladies and kids had been actually a profit. Muhammad divided up that tribe’s “property, wives, and kids” among the many Muslims, aside from among the ladies that he despatched to Najd and to Syria to be bought for horses and weapons.[13] Muhammad personally bought among the different captured ladies:

I attended the Messenger of God who was promoting the prisoners of the Banu Qurayza. Abu al-Shahm al-Yahudi purchased two ladies, with every one in every of them three male kids, for 100 and fifty dinars.[14]

In April we have now the primary recorded incident of Muhammad prohibiting the killing of girls and kids. This incident concerned Muhammad sending a small group of Muslims to the home of Abu Rafi’, a Jew who had criticized Muhammad.[15] The Muslims had been ordered to kill Abu Rafi’, however earlier than they left Muhammad “forbade them to kill ladies or kids.”[16] It was this command that prevented one of many Muslims from killing the spouse of Abu Rafi’, who was shrieking as she watched her husband being killed by Muslim swords.[17]

However in December Muhammad led the Ghazwah to al-Muraysi’ and attacked the Bani al-Mustaliq tribe. Al-Shafi’i, the founding father of one of many main colleges of Sharia Legislation, described a portion of the battle:

The Prophet launched a raid in opposition to the tribe of al-Mustalaq they usually fought again. So he commanded to set hearth to their fortifications all evening lengthy with the widespread data that girls and kids had been in there. This was as a result of it was an idolatrous camp, not exempt [from raiding]. As a substitute, it was the intentional killing of kids and girls [my emphasis] that was prohibited, whom the Prophet [preferred to] commerce and deal with as property [my emphasis].[18]

The ladies and kids weren’t be deliberately killed, as a result of after the tribe’s defeat their ladies and kids had been to be divided among the many Muslims as property.

That very same month, Muhammad despatched a raiding get together to Dumat al-Jandal to “invite” the folks to turn out to be Muslims. Earlier than the raiding get together left, Muhammad ordered,

…battle everybody in the best way of God and kill those that disbelieve in God. Don’t be deceitful with the spoil; don’t be treacherous, nor mutilate, nor kill kids.[19]

However there was no report that he particularly forbade the killing of girls on this expedition.

628 AD

In January Zayd bin Harithah led a Muslim raiding get together to Wadi al-Qura. The raiding get together took captives from the Bani Fazarah tribe. Among the many captives was an previous girl named Umm Qirfah. She met a merciless destiny:

Zayd b. Harithah ordered Qays to kill Umm Qirfah, and he killed her cruelly. He tied every of her legs with a rope and tied the ropes to 2 camels, they usually cut up her in two.[20]

There was no recorded remark from Muhammad about this deliberately merciless killing of an previous girl. This shouldn’t be shocking once we take into account Zayd’s background. Muhammad’s first spouse Khadija had initially given Zayd to Muhammad as a slave. Muhammad subsequently freed Zayd and adopted him as his son. Zayd was beloved and trusted by Muhammad and was typically positioned in charge of Muslim navy expeditions. Subsequently, if Muhammad had already issued a normal prohibition in opposition to the killing of girls, Zayd would have identified about it and he wouldn’t have ordered Umm Qirfah to be killed.

In March Muhammad, accompanied by about 1,400 Muslims, travelled to Mecca to carry out the “lesser pilgrimage.” The Meccans didn’t need the Muslims to enter Mecca and despatched a power in opposition to them. Muhammad evaded the power and camped at al-Hudaybiyah. The Meccans met with Muhammad and this resulted within the Treaty of al-Hudaybiyah.

This incident is necessary for 2 causes. Within the first place, that is the primary report of Muhammad being requested about killing the ladies and kids of the enemy (polytheists):

It’s reported on the authority of Sa’b b. Jathama that the Prophet of Allah (could peace be upon him), when requested in regards to the ladies and kids of the polytheists being killed in the course of the evening raid, mentioned: They’re from them.[21]

So Muhammad mentioned it was permissible to kill ladies and kids throughout an assault.

Within the second place, Muhammad had an attention-grabbing response when confronted with the potential for armed resistance to maintain the Muslims from coming into Mecca. Muhammad was suggested that among the Meccans (Quraish) who wished to cease the Muslims had been camped at a spot named Baldah, they usually had their ladies and kids with them. Muhammad turned to his followers with an attention-grabbing query:

The Prophet mentioned, “O folks! Give me your opinion. Do you advocate that I ought to destroy the households and offspring of those that need to cease us from (going to) the Ka’bah?”[22]

Right here we have now Muhammad asking the Muslims if they need to deliberately “destroy” the ladies and kids of the Quraysh. Because it turned out, the Muslims determined to signal a treaty as an alternative of killing these ladies and kids.

So within the occasions main as much as the signing of the Treaty of al-Hudaybiyah we have now Muhammad first saying it was permissible to kill ladies and kids of the enemy as a result of they too had been polytheists, after which suggesting the concept of deliberately attacking and killing the ladies and kids of the enemy. These statements undermine any declare that there had been a doctrinal, normal prohibition in opposition to the killing of girls and kids previous to this time.

To additional help the concept that there had been no such prohibition, Shaykh ‘Abdul-‘Aziz Al-Jarbu made an important statement with regard to Muhammad asking his Muslim warriors about attacking these households:

And certainly the Messenger of Allah is way faraway from asking advise [sic] from his Companions relating to one thing which was prohibited upon him…Nay, quite he wouldn’t search recommendation on something besides that which was made permissible for him.[23]

This Muslim scholar makes the necessary level that Muhammad would by no means search recommendation on one thing that had already been prohibited upon him. Consequently, even as much as the time of the signing of the Treaty of al-Hudaybiyah, there had been no normal prohibition in opposition to the killing of girls and kids.

In June Muhammad led a Muslim military in opposition to the Jewish group of Khaybar. Khaybar consisted of a lot of Jewish fortresses. The Muslims conquered, after which obtained a mangonel (catapult) from the Jewish fortress of al-Nata. They put it collectively and used it to throw stones in opposition to the fortress of al-Shiqq; Muhammad had earlier been suggested that this was one of many places to which the kids of al-Nata had been despatched. The Muslims obtained one other mangonel after conquering the fortress of al-Sa’b b. Mu’adh. The Muslims used mangonels in opposition to the fortress of al-Nizar, which the Jews had thought of a secure place for his or her ladies and kids to remain. The Muslims additionally used the mangonel in opposition to the fortress of al-Katiba.[24] There have been no recorded feedback from Muhammad about the potential for killing ladies and kids by utilizing the mangonels.

In December Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law and trusted good friend, led a Muslim raiding get together to Najd. Their battle cry was Amit! Amit! [Kill! Kill!].[25] Salamah bin Akwa’, one of many contributors within the raid, described what occurred:

“We attacked Hawazin, with Abu Bakr, in the course of the time of the Prophet, and we arrived at an oasis belonging to Bani Fazarah over the past a part of the evening. We attacked at daybreak, raiding the folks of the oasis, and killed them, 9 or seven households.[26]

Salamah acknowledged, “I slew with my hand members of seven households of the polytheists.”[27]

Abu Bakr was Muhammad’s father-in-law and trusted good friend. Had the killing of girls and kids been prohibited, Abu Bakr would by no means have allowed “9 or seven households” of individuals to be killed. There was additionally no recorded remark from Muhammad in regards to the killing of 9 or seven households and members of seven households.

629 AD

Round August or September, Muhammad despatched a power of three,000 Muslims to Mu’ta. Muhammad prohibited the killing of girls, kids, and suckling kids.[28]

In November Muhammad despatched an expedition to Khadira. He advised his warriors, “Make an assault, however don’t kill ladies and kids.”[29]

630 AD

This 12 months began out with the Muslim conquest of Mecca in January. Because the Muslims had been approaching Mecca, Muhammad ordered the killing of sure ladies in Mecca, amongst them had been:

  1. Fartana and Quraybah (Arnab): Two singing women who belonged to the apostate ‘Abdallah b. Khatal and used to sing satirical songs about Muhammad. There have been reviews that Quraybah was killed, whereas Fartana accepted Islam and was granted security, solely to die later.
  2. Sarah: Used to insult Muhammad when he was in Mecca. There have been reviews that she was both killed or granted security and later trampled by a horse.[30]

Towards the top of January Muhammad led a power of 12,000 Muslims in opposition to the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes, who had banded collectively to assault Mecca. These two tribes had introduced their ladies and kids with them. When Muhammad was suggested of this earlier than the battle, he mentioned,

That would be the plunder of the Muslims tomorrow, God keen![31]

The battle occurred within the valley of Hunayn. The Muslims had been initially put to flight, however they had been capable of rally and started to furiously battle the enemy. The Muslims additionally started to kill the kids of the enemy. When Muhammad was suggested of this, he in all probability realized they’d solely been following his preliminary orders, and he put a cease to the killing of the kids:

Then the Apostle of Allah, could Allah bless him, ordered them to kill whom they might. Thereupon the Muslims grew livid and killed them and in addition started to kill their kids. It (report) reached the Apostle of Allah, could Allah bless him, and he stopped them from killing the kids.[32]

After the Muslim victory at Hunayn, they started shifting towards the fortress of al-Ta’if, with Khalid bin al-Walid commanding the vanguard. It was throughout this advance that the next incident occurred:

Ibn ‘Umar narrated {that a} girl was discovered killed in one of many expeditions of the Messenger of Allah, so the Messenger of Allah rebuked that, and he prohibited killing ladies and kids.[33]

However Muhammad’s prohibition in opposition to killing ladies and kids was not a normal prohibition, as a result of Muhammad then led his Muslim military in a 14-19 day lengthy siege of the fortress at al-Ta’if, and catapults had been used in opposition to the fortress.

Al-Jassa, a later Muslim scholar, made an attention-grabbing statement:

However the biographers relay that the Prophet besieged the inhabitants of Ta’if and fired at them with catapults, regardless of his ban on killing ladies and kids. He did so figuring out full effectively that girls and kids could be struck, for it was not potential to distinguish between them.[34]

And through this siege Muhammad really ordered the killing of a girl:

Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (ra) mentioned, “If a girl stands within the ranks of the kuffar, or upon their fortress, and ridicules the Muslims, or reveals her bare self [as a distraction] – then it’s permissible to strike her. [sic] As it’s narrated on the authority of ‘Ikrimah (ra), “When the Messenger besieged the Folks of At-Tā’if, a girl got here up and revealed her bare physique. So the Messenger ordered, “Strike her! [sic]” So a Muslim man struck her.” And this was not a mistake from him. And it’s permissible to take a look at her personal parts- in such a situation- since it’s obligatory to take a look at the goal. And equally, it’s permissible to strike anybody who’s (initially) protected against killing, comparable to a toddler or an previous man and such[sic] – if she (or they) prepares arrows for the enemy, provides them water to drink, or encourages them to battle; as a result of they are going to be thought of as fighters.[35]

So in accordance with Muhammad, any girl or youngster is taken into account a fighter in the event that they have interaction in such actions as ridiculing Muslims, merely revealing a unadorned physique to distract Muslim warriors, or giving water to the “enemy.” And such a fighter will be killed.

631 AD

In December Muhammad despatched an expedition to Dhul-Khalas, a pagan shrine in Yemen. Jarir bin ‘Abdullah, the commander of that expedition, later defined what they did there and Muhammad’s response:

So I set out with 100 and fifty riders, and we dismantled it and killed whoever was current there. Then I got here to the Prophet and knowledgeable him, and he invoked good upon us…[36]

There was no file of Muhammad inquiring in regards to the standing of any ladies or kids who might need been “current there.”

632 AD

Muhammad died on June 7, 632. Nevertheless, in Might he had ordered an expedition to assault the Byzantines at a city named Ubna (often known as the Expedition to Mu’ta). Muhammad selected Usama ibn Zayd ibn Harithah to guide the expedition. Muhammad mentioned,

O Usama, assault within the identify of God and within the path of God, and battle those that don’t consider in God. Assault, however don’t act treacherously. Don’t kill a brand new born or a girl…[37]

However it was additionally reported that Muhammad gave the next normal order to Usama:

I’ve appointed you commander of this military. Assault the folks of Ubna early within the morning and set hearth (to their camp).[38]

Muhammad’s dying on June 7th delayed the assault. Quickly afterward, Usama led his power to Ubna and mentioned,

However the Messenger of God commanded me and this was his final command to me: To hasten the march and to be forward of the information. And to raid them, with out inviting them [to Islam], and to destroy and burn.[39]

Usama obeyed that command:

When Usama reached Ubna and will see it along with his eyes, he mobilized his companions and mentioned, “Go and raid…draw your sword and place it in whoever confronts you.” Then he pushed them into the raid. A canine didn’t bark, and nobody moved. The enemy didn’t know besides when the military attacked them calling out their slogan, “O Mansur, Kill!” He killed those that confronted him and took prisoner these he defeated. He set the borders on hearth and their homes and fields and date palm on hearth.[40]

So with the final expedition he dispatched, Muhammad initially advised the commander to not kill ladies and new child kids, however then gave a ultimate command to indiscriminately “destroy and burn.” Muhammad’s ultimate command was obeyed.

Conclusion

As we have now seen, throughout Muhammad’s lifetime he each accepted of and prohibited the killing of girls and kids. It was a situational resolution and never an everlasting command and part of Islamic Doctrine.

Within the essay The Clarification Relating to Deliberately Targetting [sic] Girls and Kids there’s a chapter offering examples of allowable methods of each deliberately and unintentionally killing ladies and kids. This chapter ended with an apt abstract of what we have now seen:

These are among the conditions that are exceptions to the overall [[41]] prohibition in opposition to killing ladies and kids of the kuffar; amongst these conditions, it’s permissible to typically kill them deliberately, and in addition unintentionally – so long as there’s a Maslahah [benefit (in this case, greater than the benefit of enslaving them)] for the Muslims and Mujahidin in doing so.

So all these show that the safety [‘Ismah] of their blood just isn’t unrestricted – in contrast to the prohibition of fornication and sodomy and the likes, that are unrestrictedly forbidden. Somewhat – the Shari’ah of Islam has made the blood of their ladies and kids permissible in these exceptions. So this reveals the error of the individuals who declare that their safety [‘Ismah] is unrestricted and absolute below all circumstances.[42]

Dr. Stephen M. Kirby is the writer of six books about Islam. His newest e book is Islamic Doctrine versus the U.S. Structure: The Dilemma for Muslim Public Officers.

[1] Abu’l Hussain ‘Asakir-ud-Din Muslim bin Hajjaj al-Qushayri al-Naisaburi, Sahih Muslim, trans. ‘Abdul Hamid Siddiqi (New Delhi, India: Adam Publishers and Distributors, 2008), Vol. 5, No. 1731R1, pp. 162-163.

[2] Abu ‘Eisa Mohammad ibn ‘Eisa at-Tirmidhi, Jami’ At-Tirmidhi, trans. Abu Khaliyl (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2007), Vol. 3, No. 1569, pp. 341-342.

[3] Abu Dawud Sulaiman bin al-Ash’ath bin Ishaq, Sunan Abu Dawud, trans. Yaser Qadhi (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2008), Vol. 5, No. 4361, pp. 20-21.

[4] Ibid., No. 4362, p. 21.

[5] Muhammad ibn Ishaq, The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), trans. Alfred Guillaume (Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford College Press, 2007), p. 676.

[6] Ibid., p. 676.

[7] Muhammad b. ‘Umar al-Waqidi, The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, trans. Rizwi Faizer, Amal Ismail, and AbdulKader Tayob, ed. Rizwi Faizer (London and New York: Routledge, 2013), p. 127.

[8] The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 375.

[9] Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari, The Historical past of al-Tabari: The Basis of the Neighborhood, Vol. VII, trans. M. V. McDonald and annotated W. Montgomery Watt (Albany, New York: State College of New York Press, 1987), p. 164.

[10] The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), pp. 464-465, and Endnote 711, p. 765.

[11] Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 3, Remark to Hadith No. 2671, p. 297.

[12] Commentary in The Clarification Relating to Deliberately Targetting [sic] Girls and Kids, At-Tibyan Publications, October 31, 2004, n. 89, p. 37, http://archive.org/particulars/IntentionalityTargetingWomenAndChildren.

[13] The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 466.

[14] The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, pp. 256-257.

[15] Muslim students differ about when this incident occurred. I consulted six completely different biographies of Muhammad and located 4 completely different time durations for this incidence between December 624 and January 628. Three of the biographies agreed on the time interval of April 627 (see under); consequently, I’m utilizing this as the timeframe for the homicide of Abu Rafi’:

Al-Tabari wrote that it occurred round December 624 (The Historical past of al-Tabari: The Basis of the Neighborhood, p. 100).

Al-Waqidi maintained it occur round Might of 626 (The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 192).

Ibn Ishaq wrote that it occurred shortly after the defeat of the Bani Qurayzah, which might be round April 627 (The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 482). This was the timeframe additionally identified by Ibn Kathir (‘Imaduddeen Isma’eel ibn Katheer al-Qurashi, In Defence of the True Religion: Battles, Expeditions, Peace Treaties and their Penalties within the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad, trans. Analysis Division of Darussalam (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2010) p. 212); and repeated in Safiur-Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2008), p. 381.

Ibn Sa’d wrote that it occurred round January 628 (Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Sa’d ibn Mani’ al-Zuhri al-Basri, Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, trans. S. Moinul Haq (New Delhi, India: Kitab Bhavan, 2009), Vol. 2, p. 112).

[16] The Historical past of al-Tabari: The Basis of the Neighborhood, p. 102.

[17] Ibid., pp. 102 and 104.

[18] The Al Qaeda Reader, trans., and ed. Raymond Ibrahim, (New York: Broadway Books, 2007), p. 167.

[19] The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 672.

[20] Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Jarir al-Tabari, The Historical past of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam, Vol. VIII, trans., and annotated Michael Fishbein (Albany, New York: State College of New York Press, 1997), p. 96. The identical story is expounded in The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 665.

[21] Sahih Muslim, Vol. 5, No. 1745, p. 167. Al-Waqidi wrote that this occurred in the course of the al-Hudaybiyah incident: The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 283.

[22] Muhammad bin Ismail bin Al-Mughirah al-Bukhari, Sahih Al-Bukhari, trans. Muhammad Muhsin Khan (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 1997), Vol. 5, Guide 64, Nos. 4178-4179, p. 303.

[23] The Clarification Relating to Deliberately Targetting Girls and Kids, p. 17.

[24] The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, pp. 318-330; and The Sealed Nectar, pp. 434-438.

[25] The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 355; Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 3, No. 2638, pp. 275-276; and Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol. 2, p. 146.

[26] Muhammad bin Yazeed ibn Majah al-Qazwini, Sunan Ibn Majah, trans. Nasiruddin al-Khattab (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2007), Vol. 4, No. 2840, pp. 88-89.

[27] Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol. 2, p. 146.

[28] The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, pp. 372-373.

[29] Ibid., p. 383.

[30] The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 551; The Historical past of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam, pp. 179-181; and The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 423.

[31] The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 439.

[32] Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol. 2, p. 187; and The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 444.

[33] Jami’ At-Tirmidhi, Vol. 3, No. 1569, pp. 341-342. I established this timeframe from reviews in regards to the discovering of a lifeless girl and Muhammad’s command to inform Khalid to not kill ladies: The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 448; The Lifetime of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), p. 576; Sunan Abu Dawud, Vol. 3, No. 2669, p. 295; Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 4, No. 2842, p. 89; and ‘Imaduddeen Isma’eel ibn Katheer al-Qurashi, Profitable the Hearts and Souls: Expeditions and Delegations within the Lifetime of Prophet Muhammad, trans. Analysis Division of Darussalam (Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Darussalam, 2010), p. 90, on which reference was made to Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 2669.

[34] The Al Qaeda Reader, p. 165.

[35] The Clarification Relating to Deliberately Targetting Girls and Kids, p. 31.

[36] Sahih Al-Bukhari, Vol. 5, Guide 64, No. 4355, p. 390.

[37] The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 546.

[38] Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, Vol. 2, p. 235.

[39] The Lifetime of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi, p. 549.

[40] Ibid.

[41] It’s obscure how the adjective “normal” can be utilized right here when there are such a lot of exceptions to the “Basic Prohibition” talked about on this writing. That is one other argument in favor of Muhammad’s prohibition in opposition to the killing of girls and kids being particular and situational, as an alternative of a normal prohibition.

[42] The Clarification Relating to Deliberately Targetting Girls and Kids, p. 39.

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